A literature review is a critical summary and evaluation of existing theory and research on your topic. You will apply class discussion and readings to a specific research question and examine scholarly literature on the topic. Your review provides an overview of the sources you have studied and demonstrates how your research fits within the field.
Steps in the Literature Review Process
1. Identify a specific and well-defined research question.
Your literature review should outline the background and history of your research question, assessing the strengths and weaknesses of previous studies, and provide a framework and rationale for your individual study. Tell the story of your problem, how it has evolved, how it has been studied, and what is currently known about it.
2. Gather background information on your research question.
Search reference books in the field for your topic and identify the key concepts and questions surrounding your research question. In these reference works, you will likely find mention of seminal articles, studies, and authors in the history of your topic that you can incorporate into your review, and often there will be accompanying bibliographies.
Remember, internet searching can help generate ideas, but you will rarely find the scholarly [peer reviewed] research articles primarily required for a literature review.
3. Search library databases for articles and research related to your question.
Search several databases in your field (see the Articles & Databases tab of this guide) for literature on your topic. You will often find different results in each.
It may be a good idea to search the terms, "bibliography" or "literature review" along with your topic to generate articles that summarize related research. These may then serve as models for your own review. It may also be helpful to search using the terms, "research" or "study" in conjunction with your topic.
Searching using the subject terms used in a database for your topic often returns the most relevant results. Use the subject terms found in the database you are searching whenever possible.
Make sure to use separate search boxes in a database for each term you are searching for. Connect each box with AND or OR. Do not combine your terms all in one box.
4. Analyze and interpret the literature selected for your review.
Literature reviews may be organized chronologically, methodologically, or by theme. Consult with your instructor to determine the general structure required for your review. Then summarize and critically examine each source, relating it to your research question, particularly noting any gaps or questions generated by the research. Be selective with what you include in your summary, including only what is most relevant to your research question.
Be careful to paraphrase in your analysis and use quotes sparingly. The purpose of your review is for you to interpret the literature and related it to your research question, not to strictly summarize or document what other authors have already written. Keep your own voice by making sure to open and close paragraphs with your own ideas.
5. Mistakes to avoid
How to Write a Literature Review