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IWU OCLS Tutorials: Chicago Style - Citation Elements


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  • Author (or editor) is the first element in both notes and bibliography entries.
  • Use the author's name as it appears on the title page or article heading.
  • If there is no author, the first element of the citation is the article title.
  • In full notes, type all author names in direct order, e.g., Charles Schultz.
  • When initials are part of a name, separate with a space, e.g., C. S. Lewis.
  • In shortened notes, type only author(s) last names, e.g., Schultz and Brown.
  • In a bibliography reference, invert the first author's name (Schultz, Charles); additional author names are in direct order (Ron Brown).



Full Notes



Charles Schultz.

Schultz, Charles.


Charles Schultz and Ron Brown.

Schultz, Charles, and Ron Brown.


Charles Schultz, Ron Brown, and Lucy VanPelt.

Schultz, Charles, Ron Brown, and Lucy VanPelt.


Charles Schultz et al.

Include all names.





  • Capitalization:  Use CMS headline style for titles and subtitles of books and articles: Capitalize first and last words and other major words.
  • Italics:  Italicize book titles and journal names.
  • Question Marks:
    • If a title ends in a question mark, do not use a colon before the subtitle.
    • if an article title ends with a question mark, do not insert a period after the quotation mark.
  • Quotation Marks 
    • Enclose article titles in quotation marks. If an article title includes a quotation, enclose the quotation in single quotes, with double quotes around the entire article title.
  • Shortening titles:  Shorten a book or article title that is 5 or more words in a note, but do not shorten journal titles. Acceptable ways of shortening titles:
  • Omit the initial article (A, The).
  • Include only key words from the title. 


Original Title

Shortened Title

Men and Events; Historical Essays

Men and Events

The Empire of the Seas: A Biography of Rear 
 Admiral Robert Wilson Shufeldt, USN

Empire of the Seas

Wordmark Encyclopedia of the Nations

Encyclopedia of Nations





  • Note the edition of a source in a note or reference if it is not the first edition;  that is, if the source is a numbered edition, or if the title page reads, "revised edition."

  • Numbered editions are abbreviated as shown below.

  • A revised edition is abbreviated as "rev. ed." in the note, since elements are separated by commas, and "Rev. ed." in the bibliography since elements end in periods.


Sample Note: 

23. Daniel Mack, Mosby's EMT-B Certification Preparation and Review 3rd ed. (St. Louis: Mosby, 2002), 5. 

        Sample Bib:

            Mack, Daniel. Mosby's EMT-B Certification Preparation and Review. 3rd ed. St. 

                       Louis: Mosby, 2002.


Page Numbers


Notes:  In citing a passage or quotation, provide the page number(s) in the note.  For e-resources with no page numbers or with page numbers that vary by text size, provide a chapter number, section number, or other location information.
  • Books:  Provide page numbers when referring to a chapter or section.
  • Journal and Magazine articles:  Provide start and end pages.
  • Newspaper articles:  No page numbers required.
  • Electronic sources without page numbers (including e-books with variable page numbers due to text size):  Provide identifying information, e.g., chapter number, paragraph number, heading or section title.



Journals: Volume Number, Issue, Page Numbers


  • Journals typically have a volume number for every year of publication.  For example, all issues of Art Education published in 2011 are part of Volume 64.  Each issue published within a year (or within a volume) is numbered sequentially, Issue 1, 2.... 
  • Page numbering:  Some journals begin each issue with page 1, while others use continuous pagination: if Issue 1 ends on page 78, Issue 2 begins on page 79. 
  • The table below identifies the elements of an article citation. For more information, refer to the pages in this guide, Articles (Print) and Articles (Electronic).



Included in a Citation?

Volume number


Issue number

"The issue number should be recorded even if pagination is continuous throughout a volume or when a month or season precedes the year." See the Chicago Manual of Style Online Section 14.171: Journal volume, issue, and date

Page numbers

If referencing a passage, cite the relevant page number(s) only. If referencing an entire article, cite the entire page range. See the Chicago Manual of Style Online Section 14.174: Journal page references.



Online Journals


Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in your citation if one is listed. A DOI, appended to the address,, links directly to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL. Include the access date only if required by your professor.

Use CrossRef's Free DOI Lookup to find out if your resource has been assigned a DOI.


Sample Note:
1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010,
Sample Bib:
 Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving
              Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50.
              Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.



Sample Note:

12. Pamela Paul, "The Playground Gets Even Tougher," New York Times, October 10, 2010, 12, Academic Search Complete (54317717). 


Sample Bib:

Paul, Pamela. "The Playground Gets Even Tougher." New York Times, October 10, 2010. Academic Search Complete (54317717). 

Publication Date



  • Use the most recent date on the copyright page.  If it has no date, use  "n.d."
  • If you have an idea of the date, enclose it in square brackets, e.g., [1951].


Magazines:   Use the most complete date available on the cover or table of contents.



Place of Publication


  • The place of publication is usually found on the book's title page.  If more than one city is listed, use the first.
  • If a city is not well known, include the state, province, or country.  Use state postal codes and abbreviate country/province as in Section 10.32 of CMS.
  • Make sure to use a city's English name, e.g., "Rome" not "Roma."
  • If no place is listed, use "n.p." in a note and "N.p." in a bibliography.





  • The publisher's name is found on the title page.
  • Omit initial articles from publisher names like A, An, and The.
  • Omit common corporate designations like Inc., Ltd., Co., and Publishing Co., but retain special designations like Sons, Brothers, etc.
  • Omit Press if doing so is not confusing. For example, use Abingdon rather than Abingdon Press but do not omit Press from Free Press.  Also, do not omit Press from a university press name (e.g., Ohio University Press).
  • Does the publisher name include and or &?  Use either but be consistent.
  • Is the publisher's name foreign?  Do not translate.
  • Is the publisher unknown (as with an older work)?  Use place and date only.
  • If the publisher's parent company appears on the title page, do not include it.

4201 South Washington
Marion, IN, USA 46953

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